At Home And Abroad Or, Things And Thoughts In America and Europe (TREDITION CLASSICS)
Muscular pillars and round-headed arches make Durham one of the most imposing Norman buildings in England. Haddon Hall , Derbyshire, was probably begun in the 12th century, but was remodelled and adapted at various times right through to the 16th century. It was then carefully restored in the early 20th century. Haddon shows the quality which characterises the great medieval house, in which function dictates form. Its foundation stone was laid in by Henry VI and the structure, with its lacy perpendicular fan-vaulting, was completed by during the reign of Henry VIII.
The windows were installed in In a sense, the buildings of the 16th century were also governed by fitness for purpose - only now, the purpose was very different.hostmaster.vclean.life/becoming-clissine-bastia-book-1.php
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In domestic architecture, in particular, buildings were used to display status and wealth, as William Harrison noted in his Description of England :. Each one desireth to set his house aloft on the hill, to be seen afar off, and cast forth his beams of stately and curious workmanship into every quarter of the country. This stately and curious workmanship showed itself in various ways. A greater sense of security led to more outward-looking buildings, as opposed to the medieval arrangement where the need for defence created houses that faced inward onto a courtyard or series of courtyards.
This allowed for much more in the way of exterior ornament. The rooms themselves tended to be bigger and lighter - as an expensive commodity, the use of great expanses of glass was in itself a statement of wealth. There was also a general move towards balanced and symmetrical exteriors with central entrances. In addition there was progress towards more stable and sophisticated houses for those lower down the social scale.
Stone, and later brick, began to replace timber as the standard building material for the homes of farmers, tradespeople and artisans. To quote Harrison again:. Every man almost is a builder, and he that hath bought any small parcel of ground, be it never so little, will not be quiet till he have pulled down the old house if any were there standing and set up a new after his own device. In spite of this building boom the Renaissance was generally slow to arrive in England, largely because Elizabeth's troublesome relations with Catholic Europe made the free exchange of ideas difficult.
Craftsmen and pattern-books did come over from the Protestant Low Countries, but by and large our relative isolation from the European cultural mainstream led to a national style which was a bizarre though attractive mixture of Gothic and classical styles. Hampton Court Palace onwards. The great house that Cardinal Wolsey began and then gave to Henry VIII in , in a desperate attempt to stay in the King's favour, has undergone many changes since the 16th century.
Longleat House , Wiltshire, which was completed in , exemplifies the confidence of Tudor craftsmen in a society that was more stable than that of their medieval ancestors. It looks outwards rather than in on itself, whilst classical detailing such as the pilasters that flank the expanses of glass, and the roundels carved with busts of Roman emperors, show that Renaissance ideas were creeping slowly into Britain during the mid 16th century.
Hardwick Hall , Derbyshire This is the archetypal late-Elizabethan house: tall, compact and beautiful. Her descendants, the Dukes of Devonshire, made Chatsworth their principal seat, and left Hardwick more or less unscathed. A remarkable survival. Whilst Elizabethan houses in England concentrated on the conspicuous display of wealth, Scotland saw the building of castles and fortified houses continue well into the seventeenth century. In fact, fortification became a style in its own right, and the turrets and strongly vertical emphases of Scottish Baronial houses mark one of Scotland's most distinctive contributions to British architecture.
With the exception of Inigo Jones , whose confident handling of classical detail and proportion set him apart from all other architects of the period, most early 17th century buildings tended to take the innocent exuberance of late Tudor work one step further. Traditional planning was cloaked in the splendidly overblown ornament - the sort of details described at the time as 'a heap of craziness of decorations But during the s and 50s the Civil War and its aftermath sent many gentlemen and nobles to the Continent either to escape the fighting or, when the war was lost, to follow Charles II into exile.
There they came into contact with French, Dutch and Italian architecture and, with Charles's restoration in , there was a flurry of building activity as royalists reclaimed their property and built themselves houses reflecting the latest European trends. As the century wore on, this resolved itself into a passion for the Baroque grandeur which Louis XIV had turned into an instrument of statecraft at Versailles.
Formal, geometrical and symmetrical planning meant that a great lord could sit in his dining chamber, at the physical as well as the metaphorical centre of his world, with suites of rooms radiating out in straight lines to either side. His gardens would reflect those lines in long, straight walks and avenues. The British Baroque was a reassertion of authority, an expression of absolutist ideology by men who remembered a world turned upside down during the Civil War.
The style is heavy and rich, sometimes overblown and melodramatic. The politics which underpin it are questionable, but its products are breathtaking. Greenwich Hospital was built from onwards. St Paul's Cathedral , London, is not only one of the most perfect expressions of the English Baroque, but also one of the greatest buildings anywhere in England.
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It was designed by Wren to replace the old cathedral which had been devastated during the Fire of London in Although built in the 18th century, the ideology behind Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire lies firmly in the 17th century. Conceived as a monumental homage to the Duke of Marlborough, whose victory over Louis XIV's army at Blenheim in Bavaria gives the palace its name, it was designed by John Vanbrugh and is the nearest thing Britain has to a Versailles.
To the Whigs who came to power on the accession of George I in , the Baroque was inextricably linked with the authoritarian rule of the Stuarts. A new style was needed for a new age, and the new ruling class, which aspired to build a civilisation that would rival that of ancient Rome, looked for a solution in antiquity. Or so it thought. Thereafter, they visited Shanghai, Hong Kong, and the Philippines. Since then, the Yokohama Athletics Club consisting of Americans and the Ichiko Daiichi high school Club agreed to hold the international baseball game, and in the game held in , the Ichiko Club defeated the Yokohama Athletics Club by The next game was held 2 weeks later, and in the game, the Ichiko Club defeated the Yokohama Athletics Club by again.
News of these results conveyed via newspapers made the Japanese people to be proud of their club. And since these games, the Japanese people have become fond of the baseball game Vecsey, And thereafter, the American Society of the Baseball Game planned to go to Europe again for the next expeditionary baseball game; but, it was interrupted in Paris, and since then, there have been no notable efforts to globalize the baseball game till the s.
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American Society of Baseball Game is a collection of various ethnic groups and races. And this type of society usually faces the issue of securing social cohesion. The horizontal coexistence of various racial or ethnic differences in harmony would be agreeable; however, there always exist tendencies to discriminate groups vertically. Because of these tendencies, the problem of how to organize the people from various ethnic and racial backgrounds into one culture should be solved.
In the 19th century, Americans had tried to separate themselves from the European traditions. They came to America by crossing the huge ocean to find religious or political freedom. Accordingly, the movements to escape from the European colors were also active in the sports.
This was vividly revealed by the American football. The American football, which combined the British soccer and rugby, is the game made by following the most American style. And the basketball was devised in for the health education of Christians in wintertime. The volleyball was also devised by the YMCA for the same purpose, and the game prepared nets between the two parties in order to prevent injuries caused by physical contacts Sherrow, These American sports have unique characteristics. What on earth does this mean? That is to say, one team would never lose or could end in a tie in the worst case scenario if their pitcher could play well without any decisive faults till the last 9th inning of the game.
For example, the quarterback has an omnipotent authority to decide, control, and execute all plays of attack, passing, or running in the game which could determine the whole outcome of the game. Then how about playing the basketball? What position in the game would play such an important role? So is there also a position similar to the positions discussed above in the volleyball game?
Thus, volleyball teams usually search for capable setters. Like this, the sports originated from America typically require or suppose the role of a certain leader who controls plays and leads the members to make the best of the game. Both Korea and Japan were passively integrated into modern globalization by responding to the compulsive requests of the Western civilization to open their doors.
Japan accepted Western culture as they opened the door and participated in the new order of globalization led by the Western countries in order to transform their country into a modern state. And they also actively tried to preserve their own tradition as a means to establish autonomous modern state that is able to stand against the political, economical, and cultural invasion of the Western countries.
Taekwondo gradually became generalized both at home and abroad along with quantitative expansion, and finally, the International Taekwondo Federation was found. Today, Taekwondo and Judo can also be explained by the changes in paradigm of sports diplomacy. Globalization of Taekwondo has been achieved by broad and diverse ways, including nongovernmental overseas expansion, dispatch of exhibition teams to other countries, diplomatic efforts through the establishment of international organizations, and development of Taekwondo for the competition. However, because globalization of sports is not a result of unilateral intention of one side that tries disseminating their sports, but a result of complex process of interdependence whether it is intended or not Maguire, , further discussion about globalization of Taekwondo should not overlook the parts regarding to mutual dependence.
As the champion of World Cup held in South Africa, the Spanish football teams are currently showing distinguished plays. Among them, Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo who are well known star players attract many football fans worldwide. However, neither of them can get a goal by playing alone against the 11 counter players in the game. Thus, even the star players need the organized aids from other players who are equally important in playing successful football game.
That is, the positions of offense, defense and goal keeper are equally important in this sport. This collaborative capability of all team members is also the key to playing successful game in sports like baseball, American football, basket ball or volleyball. However, in the sports originated from America, collaborative teamwork is equally important with one specialized position in the game or excellent leadership of one leading player among the divided roles and positions organized for the game.
The football game originated from England and propagated globally by Europeans became the most popular sports in the world today. They are also enjoyed by women heavily. The land of America over the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean became one independent country in the 19th century. Since almost all the people who served to establish their own independent country were composed of immigrants with various backgrounds, the country initially needed to decolorize different backgrounds in order to build a unified political, social, and cultural community.
So, under the leadership of a few selected leaders, the public consisting of people of diverse races and ethnic backgrounds had to be united by breaking down the barriers against unification. That is, the establishment of one certain type of democratic system led by a few talented people and supported by the public was the issue. This kind of socio-cultural context might have influenced the birth of American sports in which one excellent leader would play a major role in controlling or leading other players, and these sports also functioned as a means to tie the American people from different cultures.
One other characteristic feature of these young American sports is that they do not think much about the traditional aspects of their own; thus, they are quite flexible in taking or discarding the rules or regulations of the game. The introduction of the rules for designated hitters in baseball game or libero players in volley ball game reveals this feature. One definitive instance explaining this feature appeared in when the United States hosted the World Cup.
At that time, the US World Cup Organizing Committee requested the FIFA to revise two rules of the game based on their assumption that the soccer game was not popular among Americans compared to the other American sports such as the American football or the baseball game. By looking at the sports originated from England and America, we can also explore the global political phases from the 19th to the early 20th centuries.
The power of contemporary British Empire is reflected in the globalization of the football game, but the Americans did not promote their American football or baseball game to be propagated globally. America also did not have many overseas settlements. These consequences were made probably due to the political and cultural differences. By its geographical conditions and populations, the American sports would not demand globalization and rather, they tended to remain in their country filled with economic abundance, and Americans were inclined to operate their system efficiently.
That was, the American sports functioned well as business sports. Maguire explained it with two distinctive perspectives; diversity in globalization and unification in cultural imperialism. He insisted that although the process of globalization of sports partially involves cultural assimilation, at the same time it is a complex course of transformation that forms and reconfirms the differences between individuality, cultural tastes and desires, and regional identity.
However, some researchers who handle globalization of sports only with the perspectives of Americanization and westernization of sports, and cultural imperialism tend to declare that it is simply Americanization of sports Jackson, ; Maguire, ; Mckay and Miller, or they explain it as cultural imperialism Guttman, ; Guttman, Inspite of these kinds of debates, the most important thing to know is that in the understanding of globalization, states are not the crucial units that decide global order Harvey and Houle, Now the world is being unified into one whole place, on which the process lasts by interdependence between countries, not by one way power of developed ones.
At Home and Abroad Or, Things and Thoughts in America and Europe by Margaret Fuller | Waterstones
Also, Wagner suggested that exchanges and stream of global sports culture is experiencing not the expansion or the differentiation of uniqueness or differences, but homogeneity, becoming similar to each other. Globalization typically accompanies diverse collisions and conflicts through which new cultures are created or existing cultures are revised. This rule applies to the globalization of sports culture as well. Especially, the modernization of martial arts of Asia would be called as a rebirth driven by the propagation of modern rationality and mission specific characteristics aimed for educational purposes embedded in Occidental sports.
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This reveals the interdependence of sports with contemporaneous, political, economical, and cultural influences. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. Jonathan Coe. An American Marriage. Tayari Jones. Kate Atkinson. Big Sky. Past Tense. Lee Child. When All is Said. Anne Griffin. Anna Burns. Agent Running in the Field.
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