The Violent Storm : The Chaos Chronicles-Vol.I
Padan Fain serves Shai'tan and is given the ability to track Rand al'Thor. Padan Fain later merges with the ghost of the evil Mordeth, gaining the abilities to inculcate others with paranoia and to summon and control a deadly miasma. Shai'tan merges the bodies and souls of Isam Mandragoran and Luc Mantear into the individual known as Slayer, to whom Shai'tan grants powers involving Tel'aran'rhiod, including the ability to travel instantaneously between there and the physical world while awake and without the use of a gateway. All paperback page totals given are for the most widely available mass-market paperback editions.
The page count for the hardback editions do not include glossary or appendix page counts. Jordan expanded this into the stand-alone novel New Spring that was published in January In the first book, The Eye of the World , was repackaged as two volumes with new illustrations for younger readers: From the Two Rivers ,  including an extra chapter Ravens before the existing prologue, and To the Blight  with an expanded glossary.
On several occasions, chapters from various books in the series were released several months in advance of publication. These were released in eBook format as promotional tools for the then-upcoming release. Tor Books published a companion book to the series, entitled The World of Robert Jordan's The Wheel of Time , in November , which contains much hitherto unrevealed background information about the series including the first maps of the entire world and the Seanchan home continent. Jordan co-authored the book with Teresa Patterson.
Jordan ruled the book broadly canonical but stated that it was written from the perspective of an historian within The Wheel of Time universe and was prone to errors of bias and guesswork. Jordan also wrote a short story, "The Strike at Shayol Ghul", which predates the main series by several thousand years. Deleted portions for a specific character from Memory of Light were published as a short story, under the title "River of Souls", in Unfettered: Tales by Masters of Fantasy Spring The book is an encapsulating glossary of the entire series.
These proved successful and in he proposed an idea for an epic fantasy series of three books to Tom Doherty, the head of Tor Books. Jordan began writing the novel that became The Eye of the World. The novel proved extremely difficult to write and characters and storylines changed considerably during the writing process. The series was originally centered on an older man who discovered relatively late in life that he was the 'chosen one' who had to save the world. However, Jordan deliberately decided to move closer to the tone and style of J.
Tolkien 's The Fellowship of the Ring and made the characters younger and less experienced. Tom Doherty enjoyed The Eye of the World so much that he declared it would be the biggest fantasy series since Tolkien, [ citation needed ] and took the unprecedented steps of sending free review copies to every bookstore in the United States to generate interest.
Sales then doubled with the publication of the second novel just eight months later generating more interest in the first book. Jordan wrote full-time at breakneck speed for the next several years until he completed the seventh volume, A Crown of Swords , at which point he slowed down, delivering a book every two years. Fans objected when he took some time off to expand a short story into a prequel novel called New Spring , so he decided to shelve his plans for additional prequels in favor of finishing off the last two volumes in the series. He rejected criticisms of the later volumes of the series slowing down in pace in order to concentrate on minor secondary characters at the expense of the main characters from the opening volumes, but acknowledged that his structure for the tenth volume, Crossroads of Twilight where he showed a major scene from the prior book, Winter's Heart , from the perspective of the main characters that were not involved in the scene , had not worked out as he had planned.
Jordan had stated that the main sequence would conclude with the twelfth book, A Memory of Light. According to Forbes , Jordan had intended for it to be the final book "even if it reaches 2, pages. Jordan was diagnosed with the terminal heart disease primary amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy in December ,  and while he intended to finish at least A Memory of Light even if the "worse comes to worst,"  he made preparations in case he was not able to complete the book: "I'm getting out notes, so if the worst actually happens, someone could finish A Memory of Light and have it end the way I want it to end.
With Jordan's death on September 16, , the conclusion of the series was in question. On March 30, , Tor Books announced that A Memory of Light would be split into three volumes, with Brandon Sanderson citing timing and continuity reasons. The final book of the series uses Jordan's original title, A Memory of Light. The book was published on January 8, Prior to his death, Jordan had often discussed adding an additional two prequels and an 'outrigger' sequel trilogy.
Jordan had left very little in the way of notes for these additional novels—only two sentences in the case of the sequel trilogy. Dabel Brothers began adapting the series in comic book form, starting with the prequel New Spring in July Red Eagle cited delays and changes to the creative team on the DB Pro end. On March 17, , they showcased ten pages of art from the prelude to the series "The Wheel of Time: Eye of the World 0 — Dragonmount" on their website.
When asked in a interview about whether the comics would continue their run, Harriet McDougal replied "Well, eventually, [we'll] do the whole thing, unless it stops selling in a dreadful way. In other words, I don't really know. It has been in operation almost continuously there was a significant outage during —14 since Notably, the WoTMUD had gained written permission from the author to use his creation including all but major characters.
A Wheel of Time computer game was released in Over the course of the game, a lone Aes Sedai must track down a robber following an assault on the White Tower, and prevent the Dark One from being released prematurely. She eventually learns of and executes a long-forgotten ritual at Shayol Ghul to ensure the Dark Lord remains sealed within the prison. While Robert Jordan was consulted in the creation of the game, he did not write the storyline himself and the game is not considered canon. The Wheel of Time Roleplaying Game was released in from Wizards of the Coast using the d20 rules developed for the third edition of the Dungeons and Dragons game.
The game had a single adventure module published in , Prophecies of the Dragon. Shortly after the release of the adventure book Wizards of the Coast announced they would not be releasing any further products for the game. Robert Jordan cited some problems with the roleplaying game, such as storyline details in the adventure module that contradicted the books. The following year Obsidian Entertainment announced that they would be working on the project, for a PlayStation 3, Xbox , and PC release.
The American power metal band Noble Beast, on their album of the same name, wrote a song entitled "The Dragon Reborn", in reference to Rand al'Thor. In the tradition of the literature-inspired symphonic poem , American composer Seth Stewart produced a full-scale orchestral work entitled "Age of Legends", inspired by the eponymous era of myth and magic described throughout the Wheel of Time series. The orchestral piece was premiered and recorded in at the Beall Concert Hall. In a chat on CNN. It aired with no announcements or publicity. Harriet McDougal initially stated she was unaware of the show ahead of time, and that the film rights to The Wheel of Time were set to revert to the Bandersnatch Group, her company, a few days later on February 11, On April 29, , Harriet McDougal confirmed that the legal issues had been resolved and that a TV series was in development.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the writ, see Ayel.
What is Kobo Super Points?
This article is about the novel series. For other uses, see Wheel of time disambiguation. Main article: List of Wheel of Time characters. Retrieved SFX Magazine September The Hugo Awards.
Retrieved May 14, October 2, The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 19, Worlds Without End. Retrieved August 4, Archived from the original on 8 September The universe. And related subjects". Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 23 March The Post and Courier. Archived from the original on Robert Jordan's Blog. Archived from the original on January 16, Publishers Weekly. Archived from the original on December 12, Brandon Sanderson's Blog.
Brandon Sanderson official site. Dragonsteel Ent. Los Angeles Times. Eddy Hartenstein. Tor Books. January 9, Archived from the original on 13 June Archived from the original on 21 March The Metal Archives. Hollywood Reporter. Gawker Media. Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 3 April The Verge. Retrieved October 2, New Spring 1. The Eye of the World 2.
The Great Hunt 3. The Dragon Reborn 4. The Shadow Rising 5. The Fires of Heaven 6. Lord of Chaos 7. A Crown of Swords 8. The Path of Daggers 9. Winter's Heart Crossroads of Twilight Knife of Dreams The Gathering Storm Towers of Midnight A Memory of Light. Hidden categories: Pages with login required references or sources CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from June Namespaces Article Talk.
50 Must-Read Erotic Fiction Novels, Anthologies, And More
The Eye of the World. It was blind bombing. It has been applied to Berlin and other cities. Changes of Tactics The adoption of area bombing has been marked by many new developments that have increased the terror and torture of our raids. The chief of these has been the use of cascade bombing--otherwise known as saturation raids-by which a great number of heavy bombs are dropped on a limited area in a period so brief that immense destruction goes on simultaneously in all parts of the target city, and the defenses are unable to function effectively.
The method is to set the center of cities on fire by means of many thousands of incendiary bombs, after which later planes dump successive loads of high explosive on fires already started --of necessity indiscriminately, since visibility is obscured by smoke! On July 30, , this comment appeared in The Spectator: "Such a phenomenon as the discharge of 2, tons of explosives and incendiaries over a limited built-up area within fifty minutes has no sort of parallel in history. The heaviest of the raids on London, terrible as they seemed to us at the time, were by comparison quite small affairs.
In recent raids the rate was tons of bombs per square mile in an hour, or 80 times the intensity of London's heaviest attach. The RAF's goal is tons a minute. Then the interior rings are littered with bombs and incendiaries. In this way regular tornadoes arise. They are so strong that people are thrown flat on the ground, and the fire brigades cannot get to the blitzed area with their equipment. A number of people there died through lack of oxygen caused by the terrible heat. Hamburg has excellent shelters; they are, in fact, real bunkers, but it was found on opening some that though they were undamaged, many people had died from suffocation.
His idea is to pound them with blows of devastating weight and to keep up that pounding until there is no question of salvage or repair. According to a press report on March 29, , Air Marshal Billy Bishop, who himself told New Yorkers that he did not care "if there is not one house left standing in Germany" described Sir Arthur Harris as a "tiger with no mercy in his heart towards the enemy. To a handful of individuals invested with the disproportionate powers conferred by totalitarian war, millions of Germans, Italians and French owe the devastation of beautiful historic towns, and thousands of families in enemy and occupied countries, the death, injury, or mental derangement of young, helpless, and cherished members.
These memories alone, of grief and unspeakable horror, are likely to prove an implacable obstacle to the building of a better world. The old historic towns of Lubeck and Rostock were the first to suffer, in March and April, , from the new form of bombing. According to The Times of January 1, , the RAF destroyed more than 40 percent of the one and 70 percent of the other.
The objective is not merely to destroy cities, industries, human beings and the human spirit on a scale never before attempted by air action. The objective is to defeat Hitler with bombs, and to do it in Eighth Air Force. We are well on the way to their destruction. Others in Italy and occupied territory would be "treated separately. That this can be done, The Spectator of July 30, , left us in no doubt: "Thanks to the vast American production, the scale" of air attacks "can still rise.
It is over twice what it was a year ago; a year hence, if the war still requires it, it will be twice as much again. Let us now consider how far human life and treasure have already been destroyed by our raids. The Bombing of Germany I am going to quote, first, some figures from German sources. Although we might not accept them if they stood alone, authoritative British and American figures which I shall also quote, go far toward making the German figures credible. They are probably an understatement, especially if we take into account the very great additional damage done by our bombing in the three months since the German figures were reported.
At the end of October, , according to the Berlin correspondent of the Stockholm paper Afton Tidningen, the German Ministry of Home Security disclosed that , persons were killed in RAF raids on twelve German towns in the seven months from April 1 to October 25, These figures do not include bodies which could not be identified. According to a member of the German Government Statistics Office in Berlin, 1,, German civilians were killed or reported missing believed killed in air raids from the beginning of the war up to October 1, says a Zurich message.
The number of people bombed out and evacuated owing to air-raid danger was 6,, The subsequent annihilation attacks on Berlin and other targets have, of course, greatly swelled Page 54 [ Scanned image of page 54 ] that total of suffering. No doubt there are many non-adult minds which will find reason for satisfaction in the anguish that we have caused to the enemy. But others will reflect more responsibly that each one of those million dead to say nothing of the injured and seven million homeless have relatives and friends who will remember.
Their memories will be even more dreadful than those of the post-war blockade in , which was a chief origin of nazism. We shall have to reckon with those memories when the days of rebuilding come. On May 29, , the German radio gave the following details of non-military buildings completely destroyed in air raids: churches, ; schools, ; hospitals, ; while "heavily damaged" were churches, schools, and hospitals. The number must have risen enormously since then, for in his speech at Cheltenham on November 5, , Sir Archibald Sinclair disclosed that during May, June and July, , Bomber Command dropped over 52, tons of bombs.
He added that while five percent of Coventry was destroyed in the German attacks of , 40 percent of Essen had been virtually destroyed, 54 percent of Cologne, and 74 percent of Hamburg. According to the News-Chronicle of July 3, , the total bomb tonnage dropped by the Luftwaffe on British cities in the peak year of was approximately 35, tons.
At no period did the "blitz" reach an average of tons a night. The biggest raid was about tons on London on one night of In April, , one of the more intense months of raiding on Britain, the Nazis dropped about 6, tons i. Army Air Force. Of this total, Bomber Command dropped 56, tons in night attacks, 48, tons being dropped on targets in Germany. The writer justifies these attacks by quoting an RAF commentator to the effect that "the enemy's industrial cities were now great labor camps" in which the houses of the workers were "virtual barracks. Some seventeen of them have been very severely mauled.
For instance, Hamburg has had the equivalent of at least 60 'Coventries,' Cologne 17, Dusseldorf 12, and Essen In the ruins of Hamburg, Dusseldorf and Cologne 'civilized life. In all, 31 cities throughout Germany have been smacked since last December in 48 attacks of tons or more. In roughly comparable U.
John Gordon assured us that "for the first time the Germans are really beginning to squeal. How much longer will the British and American people consent to this infliction, in their name, of wholesale massacres which even their leaders regard as experimental? Not protest and revolt, but apathy, fatigue, and a mechanical endeavor to save what can still be saved, are the immediate results of concentrated bombing.
The breaking-point - difficult in any case to reach with a Gestapo-ruled people-may still be far away. The Facts Behind the Figures I propose now to examine the effects of our raids upon ten sample German cities or areas, dealing with these in alphabetical order for convenience of reference. Aachen Aachen Aix-la-Chapelle was a relatively small and pleasant industrial town of , inhabitants, situated on the Belgo-German border.
I stayed there for a few days in Besides being industrial it was also full of history, one of the most famous buildings being the Basilica with its relics of Charlemagne, who made Aachen his capital and was buried there in The town has been attacked by the RAF several times,. How badly it suffered and whether it has been damaged again I do not know. In a recent heavy raid July, several 8,pound bombs were dropped, and a few hours later smoke from the fires had risen four miles high.
The Berlin radio reported: "The streets of Aachen are burning. Flames leap up from every house. The streets are full of rubble, splintered glass, and burning beams. Berlin After a great RAF raid on March 1, , 1, people were reported killed, fires were still burning three days Page 55 [ Scanned image of page 55 ] later, and the Friedrichstrasse had 45 craters.
Reporting this attack, the Daily Herald March 20, reminded its readers that only twice during the raids on London--o April 16 and 19, were over 1, deaths reported. On June 10, , after further raids, very full details of damage throughout the city were published in the Daily Telegraph. Its correspondent wrote: "As one of my in informants put it with eloquent brevity, 'Berlin's West End looks more like a battlefield than a city'. On August 25, 26 and 27, paragraphs in the Daily Telegraph described the after-effects: "From Leipzigerstrasse to the Chauseestrasse looks like No Man's Land," reported its Stockholm correspondent.
One traveller said: "I have lived many years in Berlin, yet at no time during that drive" in a taxi through the city "could I identify which street we were passing through. There were just ruins, shattered all, and fire wherever we passed From Friedricstrasse, down Belle Alliance Platz, the whole of the Tempelhof district had been reduced to a wilderness.
Further heavy raids occurred on August 31 and on September 3, when 1, tons were dropped in twenty minutes. The Daily Telegraph of September 20, , carried a long description of the consequences of these attacks, from which the following extracts are taken: "A picture of Berlin as it is today is given by a Swiss eyewitness article in the St. Gallen Tagblatt, in which he states: 'The last air attack on Berlin inflicted, particularly in the West End of the city, colossal damage, and also in the inner city and at the southern end at Lankwitz and Lichterfelde.
In these districts streets were hardly negotiable The evening papers next day carried the headline: " Blockbusters Flung on Berlin. The Daily Herald of November 24 announced the second great raid under a big photograph of four grinning pilots, which struck the note of jubilation this time indulged in by the entire large-circulation press. The Daily Telegraph, as usual, carried the most comprehensive details of the raids, and gave the fullest description of their meaning for the tormented civilian population.
Describing the attack of November 22 as "very nearly the heaviest raid on any target in the history of air warfare," the newspaper continued: "Reports from neutral capitals last night made it clear that the havoc was on an unprecedented scale, particularly in the center of the city.
Thousands were reported killed and injured. Un-broken heavy clouds lay along the whole route. We bombed Berlin 'blind. He reported Berlin as being "ten times worse today than it was yesterday. The Berlin we know has simply ceased to exist. Continuing to quote him, this correspondent wrote: "The fire brigades and ARP personnel are powerless to cope with the situation. Day has been turned to night by the billowing clouds of evil-smelling smoke which fill the streets. Unter den Linden is a shambles today, there are long lines of burning buildings in it The University State Library is still burning.
Troops turned out with rifles and machineguns to hunt leopards, elephants, bears, tigers and lions in the Tiergarten Men who should know estimate that 85 percent of the suburb of Spandau has been wrecked. The situation there is so serious that it has been decided to evacuate the whole district. I saw wretched creatures, trapped by. Asphalt in the streets is alight everywhere, while over all lies the stench of phosphorus bombs.
I saw no panic and no demonstration of any kind, although I heard several persons become hysterical in the shelter where I took refuge during the actual raids. Certainly thousands of people have moved to the suburbs or to the country beyond, but more to find a roof over their beads than because they are actuated by fear.
I never knew a possible air attack could be like this; that it could affect nerves, digestion, eyesight, and everything in this way. Whole streets are ablaze. The heat is so fierce that people are collapsing because of it. Tens of thousands of people are leaving the city Their faces are blackened with soot and smoke. Many of them have bandaged hands, signs that they were burned in frantic and useless efforts to put out the flames of the thousands of fires that raged last night and the night before.
In the burning areas people can be seen vainly trying to save what is left of their belongings The three raids coming on top of one another have stunned the people. Nazi propaganda that the people of Berlin cursed the RAF is wrong. Instead, after the raid, the people of Berlin could find little to say. They only picked up what they had managed to gather and moved silently on.
One says that 25, were killed on Monday night and the same number Page 56 [ Scanned image of page 56 ] on Tuesday night. The Swiss newspaper Die Tat states that between 20, and 30, bodies, victims of Monday night's raid, have already been recovered. The next day The Observer's Air Correspondent, Frederick Tomlinson, commented as follows: "The scientists who have developed our newest bombs and our latest aircraft equipment have -presented us with a terrible weapon, the logical purpose of which is not so much to destroy industrial buildings as isolated objectives but to make industrial life with its attendant war production impossible in all the large cities of Germany.
In area Berlin's square miles compare closely to New -York's Berlin has been struck by over air raids. According to General H. The London bureau of the Herald-Tribune cabled: "The estimates of damage, it was emphasized, count acres of buildings as just that. Streets, courtyards, squares or gardens are not included in the total estimate that at least 17 percent of Berlin's 8, acres of actual buildings have been either destroyed or so damaged as to render them useless. No capital in the world has ever suffered such damage.
The simultaneous explosion of a great number of heavy bombs not only creates tremendous havoc near by but cracks the foundations of buildings far removed from the site of the blast. He writes: "One very large British bomb is known to have devastated a built-up section of a German city as large as the Yankee Stadium. A 1,pound bomb will penetrate more than twenty-four feet of earth and will blast a crater almost fifty feet in diameter and eight feet deep.
He saw animals in the Zoo being shot by the police as they were attacking the wounded. Cold, lack of food and curiosity brought them back again three days later. During a thirty-minute nightmare high explosives and incendiaries fell at the rate of more than eighty tons each minute. Cologne Cologne, a city of , inhabitants, was one of the most beautiful and historical towns in Germany. Its foundations were laid in In the narrow, crooked streets in the center of the historic area, there were many houses of the 15th and 16th centuries, and even earlier.
As the chief city of the Rhineland, Cologne has suffered repeated raids which have given it the equivalent of "17 Coventries. In Bomber Command's big raid on Cologne more than acres were devastated. According to the Evening Standard of June 30, German overseas radio said that in addition to damage to the Cathedral, the celebrated Roman Church of St. Cuthbert was also a victim of the bombs.
It put the number of churches destroyed in Cologne at about thirty-five. On August 5, the Daily Telegraph quoted a detailed report of the raid havoc, given to the Swiss newspaper St. Gallen Tagbiatt by a Swiss citizen who had just returned from Cologne, where he had lived since The inner city, he said, was finally destroyed on the night of June 28, when, it was estimated, nearly 1, tons of bombs were dropped.
The previous month a "complete job" had been made of the suburbs, when whole working-class areas were razed to the ground. Page 57 [ Scanned image of page 57 ] Speaking of the actual damage done during the raids, this witness said: "Except for the cathedral and a few isolated houses, the old and inner city of Cologne has ceased to exist.
Current History Index
The Savoy Hotel collapsed. From the big Buelheim suspension bridge I gazed on what ought to have been the panorama of Cologne. I saw only masses of thick smoke. As I rode towards the city I noticed that the trees along the Rhine were stripped of their foliage and covered with thick dust. I have always imagined that a prehistoric landscape without life must have been like this. The sight of human beings moving about in it gave me a cold shiver. I seemed to be on another planet. They were too tired to talk. It was then only seven hours after the raid. In front of houses lay goods and chattels, and also people in a state of utter exhaustion.
Further on in the city, in a big square, I saw bodies laid out in hundreds. Diisseldorf Once a bright, clean town with pleasant parks and friendly inhabitants, Dusseldorf was described by the News-Chronicle Air Correspondent after the heavy raid of June 12, , as "a dead city. It was killed in a night. Thirty-six hours after the June raid, the Sunday Times commented: "Raids on the scale of Friday night's attack on Dusseldorf mean the virtual blotting-out of the city as far as ordinary residential life is concerned.
Twenty thousand people have been killed. This once beautiful city is today a heap of ruins. The gaiety of its population has vanished. There are sad faces to be seen everywhere. The new railway station is completely destroyed.
The station square with its great hotels and the main post office is covered with ruins. All the streets converging on the square show the same picture of destruction. The center, north and south of the city have suffered most. All the entertainment buildings have disappeared: the Municipal Theatre, the Concert House, the Jaegerhof Castle, the Apollo Theatre and all the great cinemas and department stores such as Tietz.
The fashionable hotels such as Breitenbacher Hof, the Park Hotel and also the Hochhaus, are completely burned out.
Current History Title Index
A high police officer told me that 2, people were killed during one night of heavy bombardment and that the Provincial Fire Insurance building still covers its victims. These figures do not include the destruction in the industrial suburbs of Gerresheim and Benrath. On November 5, , an article by Wing Commander Charles Bray reported yet another "obliteration raid": "RAF in great strength dropped over 2, tons of high explosive and incendiary bombs on Germany on Wednesday night.
This brought the total weight of bombs dropped in the 24 hours to 4, tons, the greatest weight ever dropped in a day and night operation. Dusseldorf was the main target, and the raid was all over in 27 minutes. After the 2, ton raid on June 13, reconnaissance photographs showed that two-thirds of the central city had been destroyed.
It has now been raided 58 times. Nineteen of our bombers were lost. Hamburg The destruction of Hamburg, between July 24 and August 2, , like the later mass attacks on Berlin, may testify to our capacity to win the war, but it also provides irrefutable evidence of the moral and spiritual abyss into which we have descended. In eight heavy raids during ten days and nights, a total of about 10, tons of high explosives and incendiaries was dropped on this city of 1,, inhabitants, completely destroying nine square miles, or 77 percent of the built-up area Daily Telegraph, Sept.
At least 20, perished in shelters alone. An officer of the RAF who had been over Hamburg said: "The term raid is no longer expressive enough for what is happening. From what I have seen in two of the six air attacks made within 72 hours the destruction is truly devastating. In comparison the enemy raids on London were child's play. What is going on at Hamburg can be repeated on any target we select.
Hamburg is the first to be dealt with. Another RAF commentator, describing the raids as "the most striking bombing event in history," said: "To all intents and purposes a city of 1,, inhabitants lies in absolute ruins. It is probably the most complete blotting-out of a city that ever happened. Everywhere were charred corpses, and injured people had been left unattended.
Synonyms and antonyms of violent storm in the English dictionary of synonyms
We will remember those Hamburg streets as long as we live. Charred adult corpses had shrunk to the size of children. Women were wandering about half-crazy. That night, the largest workers' district of the city was wiped out. The official German estimate, as is the habit with all official estimates, which are provided for home as well as foreign consumption, put this figure much lower, though it admittedly left out the unidentifiable dead.
Facts which I am about to record suggest that these must have reached appalling proportions in Hamburg. I can only tell what I saw with my own eyes-district after district razed to the ground. When you drive through Hamburg you drive through corpses. They are all over the streets, and even in tree-tops.
Hundreds of people were found burned to death in the streets and the clothing was scorched off many by the fires. About 47, dead bodies were counted before search work began, and estimates of people killed vary from 65, to , For a fortnight the fires have raged unchecked and the people are almost poisoned by the smoke and the ghastly smell that hangs over the empty streets, where the walls are still radiating heat. They screamed and threw themselves, biting and clawing the doors which were locked against them by the wardens. It occurred as a result of the area being covered with mines, high-explosives and phosphorus bombs and hundreds of thousands of ordinary incendiaries.
Every physicist of the air war could have calculated this effect in advance if the number of high explosive and incendiary bombs to be dropped on a given area were known to him. It is a question of the well-known fact that every open fire sucks in the oxygen it needs from the surrounding atmosphere, and that large fires, unless there is a strong wind, will lead to the creation of so-called air chimneys up which the flames will rush with ever-increasing force.
If the area of the fire covers several square kilometres, then the flames licking out of individual rows and blocks of houses will combine into one big blanket of fire, covering the entire area and rushing up to ever greater heights. According to English reports, the Hamburg fire reached a height of six kilometres, that is, up to that height the heat rose in one compact body. The effect is that of enormous bellows pumping air into this district from all directions; for the sea of flames sucks in air from its surroundings.
In this, the streets serve as channels through which the air passes toward the center and at the same time the air rushing through the streets sucks the flames from the burning houses horizontally into the streets. Thus, human beings and flames will compete for the available oxygen and, naturally, a fire of this size will get the better of it.
The flames suck the last remains of oxygen from all rooms, shelters and cellars, and at the same time devour all the oxygen in the streets. At the same time the temperature in the shelters rises unbearably, but the people are prevented from leaving the shelters during the early stages of the bombing by the constant rain of high explosive, incendiary and phosphorus bombs, which release a fine shower consisting of a mixture of rubber and phosphorus.
Experience has shown that when the people finally make up their minds to leave the cellars it is too late. They have no strength left to carry out their decision, and even if they have they lack the strength to resist the heat and the lack of oxygen in the street. It is easy to see that men, with their greater power of resistance and stouter clothing, are better able to resist such a method of attack than women and children. That is why the majority of the victims are women and children.
Numerous completely charred bodies of women and children were found along the outer walls to the houses; women and children in light summer clothing who emerged from the cellars into the storm of fire in the street were soon converted into burning torches. Hamburg experts who are in charge of the salvaging of bodies have stated that only a minute percentage of the population residing there can have escaped with its life under the conditions prevailing during the attack.
The whirlwind surrounded the entire district with a fiery wall and only those were able to save themselves who escaped at the very beginning. Even medium sized squares and wide streets offer no protection. The people who remained in these rooms were not only suffocated and charred but reduced to ashes. In other words, these rooms which, without exception, became death-chambers for dozens and hundreds of people, must have reached a temperature such as is not reached in the burning chambers of a crematorium.
One doctor who supervised the salvage of the bodies remarked that the incineration of the bones had in many cases been more complete in the cellars than it is in the normal process of cremation. Obviously, it is impossible to identify the bodies, as all the belongings of the people have also been reduced to ashes. Even today, the work of salvaging is still extremely difficult because the temperature in the cellars a fortnight after the fire is still such that any introduction of oxygen makes the fire flare up again.
How great was the temperature Page 59 [ Scanned image of page 59 ] prevailing in these streets is further proved by the fact that the glass in the windows and metal frames were reduced to ash and cinders. Obviously, effects like those described can only be achieved in densely populated residential districts with high house's and relatively narrow streets. The streets, however, need not be very narrow, for roughly fifty women and children were found suffocated, half charred, and with all their clothing torn from their bodies by the storm, on a playing field which was situated at the centre of a street crossing.
It appears, therefore, that the air war in this form can indeed turn entire districts of a large city, and, above all, the residential quarter of workers and employees, into a fiery grave which no one can escape who has not the courage to flee in the early stages through the rain of phosphorus, high explosive and incendiary bombs.
Mainz Mainz, in the grand-duchy of Hesse, was one of the most important commercial centers on the Rhine. It was also a city of unusual historic interest, having been founded, as "Maguntiacum," in 13 B. Its importance dated from , when it was made an Archbishopric. The picturesque Cathedral in the Marktplaz dated in its more recent form from the 12th to the 14th centuries, with later restorations. In an RAF raid carried out in August, , this Cathedral, and many other cultural monuments, were burnt to the ground.
According to the Frankfurter Zeitung, the Bishop's Palace was also seriously damaged, and five churches were obliterated. Rootes, in Piccadilly, of photographic enlargements showing the devastation caused by air raids on German and other continental cities, was given the following description of Mainz by an RAF official guide: "The whole core of the city is destroyed. The total area of devastation within the city equals approximately acres.
Fifty-five acres in the city center have been devastated. Ruined civic buildings include museums, churches, schools. There is hardly a house habitable or a building useful in the center of the city. Shops, offices, art galleries are destroyed. Here a 4,pound bomb has fallen; what was a built-up area is now an empty space. Munster The old town of Miinster, the capital of Westphalia, contained a beautiful Romanesque Cathedral and many other architectural treasures. Of this city, a foreign observer was quoted as saying: "I have not seen Lilbeck or Rostock, but I did see Miinster some days after you had bombed it several times.
There was hardly a whole building standing in the middle of the town. House after house was an empty shell of blackened walls. Street after street was a mere avenue between heaps of rubble. Increase the scale, and you will get the same result in wider areas. There is a limit to what people can stand, and, as I say, that limit can be coldly calculated and achieved. More recently, on October 13, , recording that "Munster has frequently been bombed," and that "the territory of the Reich is being battered and laid waste as never before in the history of modern warfare," Noel Panter, Zurich correspondent of the Daily Telegraph, quoted a German spokesman's description of a British and American raid on Sunday, October "The attack took place while worshippers filled the churches, and that is one reason for the high casualties.
As Munster has no industries worth mentioning, the town and the immediate vicinity were not strongly protected. According to this argument, it was entirely reasonable of the Luftwaffe to bomb to death a number of children attending Sunday school at a church in Torquay! The description of Munster as "an episcopal city" is not incorrect, as a Saxon bishopric was founded there by Charlemagne in Since the war, the anti-Nazi pronouncements of its courageous Bishop, Count von Gafen, have become well-known to those who follow events in Germany.
The town possessed numerous medieval buildings, including the Gothic Church of St. Lambert 14th Century , and a university founded about Of this war, James Harvey Robinson wrote in The History of Western Europe, a standard school textbook first published in "The accounts of the misery and depopulation of Germany caused by the Thirty Years' War are well-nigh incredible. Thousands of villages were wiped out altogether; in some regions the population was reduced by one half, in others to a third, or even less, of what it had been at the opening of the conflict.
The flourishing city of Augsburg was left with but sixteen thousand souls instead of eighty thousand. The people were fearfully barbarized by privation and suffering and by the atrocities of the soldiers of all the various nations. Until the end of the 18th century" i. Inevitably, therefore, the after-effects, in terms of privation and barbarism, will be still graver and more prolonged.
Is this a prospect to which even the least thoughtful among the British and American peoples look forward with enthusiasm? Nuremberg Within recent years, Nuremberg has acquired an unenviable notoriety as the scene of Nazi rallies. It had, however, many centuries of history to its credit before the Page 60 [ Scanned image of page 60 ] Nazis were ever heard of, having been made a Free City in Less insensate ages than our own are likely to regard as catastrophic the fact that the choice of Nuremberg as a Nazi meeting-place was used by Bomber Command as an excuse for destroying, the heritage of those centuries.
Nelson's Encyclopedia records of Nuremberg: "It still retains its ancient walls and moat, and is one of the richest towns on the Continent in medieval buildings and works of art. The churches are full of priceless paintings, statuary and carvings. The Castle, dating from , was enlarged by Frederick I Barbarossa , and has served as a residence for many German Emperors. Of famous collections the Germanic museum is the most valuable, and a remarkable library, dating from , is preserved in the old Dominican Monastery. Its picture gallery contains masterpieces by Holbein, Durer and others.
Moreover Nuremberg, in addition to its irreplaceable treasures, had other characteristics of medieval cities, such as narrow streets and ancient ramshackle dwelling houses closely crowded together. In his famous Berlin Diary, William Shirer, describing a Nazi rally which he was sent to report, writes of "the narrow streets that once saw Hans Sachs and the Meistersingers. Forty-nine bombers were lost in these two raids. The German official figures -almost certainly an understatement-gave the number of the dead as 3, On August 29, , the Sunday Express recorded: "Few towns, even in Germany, can ever have received so shattering a blow in forty minutes as medieval Nuremberg, the Bavarian 'holy city' of the Nazi Party, which was the target of the vast armada of bombers that roared for more than an hour over Southeast England late on Friday.
He said: 'I reckon we knocked the whole place flat. Hart, Express air reporter: "Nuremberg, center of some of Germany's most vital war industries, was a seething bonfire when our very strong force of four-engined bombers left the scene. Crews returning at dawn brought glowing descriptions of the effects of their heavy bombs and incendiaries.
Tbree Prussian Towns Anklam, Marienbad, Remscbeid Three first-hand reports describe the effect of obliteration raids upon small towns where the area, the population, and hence the capacity for defense, is limited, and the power of recovery almost nil. The first two accounts were given to the News-Chronicle 28 by repatriated British prisoners of war.
These men had flown Whitneys, Fairey Battles, and other planes whose names are almost forgotten. Howard, a New Zealander, a fighter pilot, told me: 'We were absolutely staggered at the sight. It seemed as if the whole place, works and everything, had been knocked absolutely flat. It was as though it had been smashed over and over again.
There was just nothing left. It was flat, dead flat; everything the American bombers had set out to smash they had smashed irremediably. They were yellow with undernourishment. Children were the same. A navigator said that the outline of the blazing mass below exactly corresponded with the contour of his target map The real damage on a big scale is caused when the fires become uncontrollable The aircraft attack Crews have no time to dwell on the terrible nature of the attack being carried out down below; they are intent on carrying out their mission and preserving themselves.
Doubtless they do not picture the frantic children pinned beneath the burning wreckage, screaming to their trapped mothers for help as those "uncontrollable fires" come nearer. But what will be the effect of their deeds upon the more sensitive of these young flyers when in future years they come to know what "the terrible nature of the attack" really meant, and have time to think about it? They may, perhaps, be forgiven by some of their surviving victims, but will they ever forgive themselves? What aftermath of nightmare and breakdown will come?
Has any Page 61 [ Scanned image of page 61 ] nation the right to make its young men the instruments of such a policy? These are the questions that we ought to be asking ourselves today. Thousands of mothers of young airmen must already be asking them in their hearts. The Ruhr and Vicinity The Ruhr Valley first became famous in recent history when the French occupied it in in an attempt to enforce the astronomical reparations payments demanded from Germany by the Treaty of Versailles.
I myself spent some time in visiting this area in when the French occupation was still in force.